Myths and Misconceptions
The general population and pop culture hold considerable myths and misconceptions about hypnosis and hypnotherapy. The ancient and diverse lineage of the use of mind “therapy,” though used as a wonderful treatment tool, is so full of wonder and mystery that it has become a popular topic for media reporting and fictional works. In more modern times, it has become a topic fit for screen, stage, and of course, caricature. As a result, the public has some fairly universal misconceptions about hypnosis which impact the general view of hypnotherapy. Starting with a fairly exhaustive list of these myths and misunderstandings culled from Robin Butterfield’s Hidden Depths: The Story of Hypnosis, let us address the most common misconceptions.
1. You are asleep when you are hypnotized. Historically, a hypnotic trance has been associated with “non-consciousness” and the only conclusion was that it must be some form of sleep. Because we have different degrees of alertness, it was assumed that sleep also had different degrees; many considered the hypnotic stage as just one of them. As we pointed out in our earlier descriptions of the Middle Mind, the better description for the place of hypnosis is in a separate non-sleep, non-conscious mind, a third category all on its own.
Consciousness is characterized by an alertness to the tasks at hand and an awareness of various competing stimuli. Sleep is characterized by relaxation without an awareness of surroundings. The hypnotic trance generally requires deep relaxation, thus its similarity to sleep. But there is a sharp awareness and focus on one particular thought to the exclusion of all other sensory activity in hypnosis that is lacking in sleep. Therefore, it is not sleep. The hypnotized subject is well aware of what is going on around him. (There is a form of hypnotic trance in which the subject is not in a relaxed state, but we will save that for another chapter.)
This idea of hypnosis as sleep may be what leads to a similar misconception, that to be hypnotized a person must keep his eyes closed and remain completely still. Actually, neither is required. Because relaxation is step one in the process, some people will simply close their eyes at the beginning of the process (I always did), or a therapist may request that a client do so. To me, it just made sense to help facilitate the process. If a subject begins the hypnotic transition with his eyes open, as he relaxes it is natural for him to close his eyes as he relaxes.
Nor should a subject worry about remaining absolutely still. The goal is comfort in order to accentuate relaxation. Just as we remain relatively still to fall asleep, it makes sense to reduce movement to help the hypnotic process. Mummification, however, is not necessary. And yes, you may scratch that itch without fear of reprisal!
2. You are unconscious under hypnosis. Unfortunately, I have had the occasion to be under chemical anesthesia a number of times in my life, starting with a tonsillectomy at six years old and including two wrist surgeries in high school, several eye procedures, and of course the biggie I discussed in the earlier chapters of this book. I am always amazed at how that time just disappears between my counting backwards from one hundred in the operating room and awaking in the recovery room. My preconceived notion was that hypnosis would be similar to that experience, or to sleep, or to some other weird state I have never experienced before. I won’t say that I was disappointed that the Middle Mind turned out to be familiar ground, similar to my near-sleep or daydreams, but it was not a Disney-style fantasyland full of magic either. One thing is certain, however; I was not unconscious.
3. You are under the power of the hypnotherapist. This myth is a serious error that Hollywood has perpetuated through its films. Hollywood may not be without some basis for its error, however, since the earliest pioneers of hypnotherapy operated on similar misconceptions themselves. At the turn of the century society was more fragmented with castes, classes, and cultural mandates of submissiveness between masters and servants. This stratification influenced those seeking to master the art of hypnosis to assume a more authoritarian role as therapist. Their view was that, while in a hypnotic state, the patient could be ordered to change his or her behavior and that the Middle Mind would follow the directive. In different societies and cultures, such a view may have had some effect, but it was not the key element that creates the success of today’s hypnotherapy.
In the early twentieth century, American psychiatrist Milton Erickson, the father of modern hypnotherapy, pioneered the permissive hypnosis style of treatment. Erickson grasped the concept that the Middle Mind does not respond the way the conscious mind does to directions. The Middle Mind takes suggestions and uses those suggestions to develop changed behavior. The Middle Mind will not be told what it must do.
As a result, we now know the hypnotherapist is not exerting power upon a client; rather he is working cooperatively with the client on his plans and goals for change. The hypnotherapist shows great respect for the client and seeks to exude gentleness. The clients’ beliefs and language are paramount in developing the individual approach to therapy. The goal is to empower the client’s Middle Mind to find its own solution to the problem.
A related misconception is that the hypnotists dominate gullible people. We now realize that successful behavior change only occurs with intellectual and intelligible cooperation between the therapist and the subject. The idea of dominance or gullibility, thus, loses all logical support. Actually, the sharper and more cooperative the client, the faster the progress toward the goal.
4. Hypnosis is dangerous. Hypnosis would be useless as a tool of treatment if it did not work. Even knowledgeable detractors agree that the evidence overwhelmingly supports the science and efficacy of hypnosis as a tool of behavioral change. Hypnosis actually enhances the speed with which behavior is modified and improved, but as with any therapy, whether physical or psychological, precautions are always advised. Take for example the open heart procedure I described in Chapter Two. I permitted the physicians to anesthetize me, to open my chest, and to detach my heart from my body. A man actually reached into my chest and held my heart. I trusted all kinds of pharmaceutical manufacturers, doctors, and nurses to keep me alive. Surrounded with potential risks while I was totally unconscious, I acted on trust and faith in the true professionals.
Although hypnosis can be used in both useful and useless ways, it comes with far fewer risks than typical health treatments. Why? Because a patient is in control the entire time and has the ability to exit a trance whenever she wants.
Think of hypnotherapy as electricity or fire. Under control, these are most trustworthy tools for generating heat, cooking food, or clearing underbrush. Qualified hypnotherapists ensure that their clients are well treated and emotionally cared for with dignity and respect. The same steps you take to protect yourself when employing other professionals, whether in health care, financial care, or dry cleaning, you should take with hypnotherapists. Are the ones you are considering both qualified and trustworthy? If you can answer those questions with confidence, you are set to begin.
As with any area in life, unscrupulous characters can, too, be expected to exist in the hypnotherapy field. If in doubt, don’t go. Get to know your hypnotherapist, and make sure that you trust him or her. And avoid those stage hypnotists! They are our next subject.
5. Hypnosis makes you cluck like a chicken: the sorry case of stage hypnotists. I must admit, most of what I thought about hypnotism came from watching snippets of stage hypnotists on television. I had never seen one in person, and I really do not remember spending much time in viewing their performances on TV, but I had obviously seen enough to have formed some hard and fast (and very wrong) ideas about hypnosis. I never believed professional wrestling was real, and I never trusted that TV faith healers were truly healing anyone. Looking back, I was the fool to have thought of stage hypnotism as much more than showmanship and audience manipulation.
This is not to say that stage hypnotists are incapable of performing hypnosis, but it is highly unlikely, given the setting and the time constraints of an entertainment program. A full hypnotic induction typically takes time and patience. Since the primary first step is relaxation, a performance setting does not present the best accommodations for hypnosis.
So, how do they do it? At a theater or a club, the performer may employ a short-cut technique of pressing the carotid artery just behind the ear to produce something that looks like a trance; it is, however, just dizziness. More likely, he has planted several people in the audience known as “horses” in the industry. These may simply be actors. It is possible that the horses are associates of the performer whom he knows to be really good subjects for hypnosis and whom he has hypnotized repeatedly before. These horses will jump to the front of the line when the hypnotist asks for volunteers from the audience. Among the volunteers, the stage hypnotist will, with some simple test, determine which are highly suggestible, meaning not necessarily that they will be hypnotized, but rather that they follow and imitate the actions of the horses. These followers are ones who are happy to go on stage and be part of the fun. Think choreographed peer pressure. Sadly, some entertainers will just make participants look silly, and still others demean the whole experience with lewd acts.
Remember two key points that we know are true about real hypnosis. First, a person is not unconscious and is always aware of what is going on. Secondly, the subject of the hypnotic trance still remains in control of his actions.
Stories abound of charlatan stage performers. In his autobiography, Mark Twain tells of being a volunteer to such a performer and how that performer handled Twain’s challenges. Another author writes about a community leader who played along only to deck the hypnotist upon being awakened because he knew exactly what the performer had done, and he was embarrassed by his own actions.
These performers use the mystique of hypnosis as a guise for their scams. Remember, their goals are entertainment, particularly laughter, accolades, and promotion for their shows. Any embarrassment or harm that may result from his show is of little concern to them.
A strict code of ethics guides true hypnotherapists. Their sole objective is helping their clients safely, confidently, and privately achieve behavioral changes that positively affect their daily lives.
6. Hypnosis is a magical power. Because the effects of hypnosis and early hypnotherapy were observed without people understanding the means by which change was wrought, hypnosis could certainly have appeared to those early observers to be magical, spiritual, or ethereal. It was difficult to explain, both by hypnotists and their subjects alike.
As a result, the purveyors of the arts and sciences were left to claim all sorts of causes for the cure. Those who sought to use it for entertainment, accolades, power, or profits were capable of claiming special magical gifts, and they were left alone to do so. Different religious operators assigned the power to their gods, operating through their institution and their priorities.
Today, we better grasp the workings of hypnosis as a tool of change, and we realize that it is not magic at all. Admittedly, the science still fascinates us, and we know that we have much more to learn about how the mind converts suggestions under hypnosis into remarkably changed behavior, but we grasp enough of how this marvelous tool works to make practical use of it.
As a successful subject of hypnotherapy, I must admit that in describing my changed behavior to others, I would say, “It’s magical!” My choice of phrase was based on two reasons. My view of hypnotherapy was nothing like I thought it would be. I was always alert, never unconscious. I was always in control of my senses. At first, I actually thought that nothing was really happening to me. But, then, the weirdest things began to happen. I describe them as subtle changes, but really my altered behavior was quite remarkable. My desire to eat healthy foods, particularly vegetables, was a completely new experience. My ability to avoid the high calorie, low nutrition diet of my past was evidence of a self-control that I had not had before. And my overall commitment to the weight loss program and the reorientation of my entire behavior was just . . . well, what can I say, but seemingly magical.
Now that I know more of the science of hypnotherapy, I get it. However, I still remain in complete awe of its usefulness to change behaviors and change lives.
7. Hypnosis alone is therapy. While I have addressed this misconception earlier in more detail (Chapter 8), this discussion will offer a quick summary. Hypnosis is remarkable, but it is only a tool. A subject gains nothing substantial other than maybe a period of rejuvenation or relaxation from being hypnotized, similar to a good nap. Hypnosis become therapeutic and capable of facilitating change only in combination with other elements. The therapist and the client must establish a strong relationship built on trust and fostered in a comfortable atmosphere. Together, the pair must examine the history of the problem behavior and then reach an agreement on the targeted goals. The therapist must take the objectives of the agreement and develop a script of suggestions to use during the sessions. Then the therapist must guide the client from relaxation into hypnosis and into an adequate level of trance depth. In the language of the client and with highly structured signals, the therapist must offer the appropriate suggestions and encouragements which the client’s Middle Mind will digest and utilize to reprogram behavior. In all likelihood, the therapist will phrase the words so that the client may reinforce the changes at home following the session. The therapist will then correctly bring the client out of hypnosis in such a way that the gains which the client has made will be optimized.
Hypnosis is key to success in hypnotherapy. But only in the hands of a trained hypnotherapist can hypnosis accelerate the permanent behavior change.
8. Some people cannot be hypnotized. This statement may actually have some truth in it. But while some people do not make good candidates for hypnosis, most do.
Some persons are mentally incapable of being hypnotized. Since hypnotism is based on language communication, anything that interferes with that communication limits hypnotism’s effectiveness. Many mental disorders restrict hypnosis. Those who suffer serious paranoia are not good candidates since hypnotism requires a high level of trust in the therapist. Persons with very low IQs are less likely to have success with hypnotism, also, since their ability to reason through to change is diminished.
So, what about the extremely bright subject? Are they too intelligent to fall under hypnosis? Will not their power of rationalization overwhelm the hypnotic process? Actually, the more bright and creative a person is, the more likely he or she is to be a good candidate for hypnosis and successful hypnotherapy. Highly motivated people also make strong candidates.
Even the lightest depths of hypnosis can foster successful hypnotherapy, and just about any mentally balanced person can reach these levels.
Since true hypnosis places the subject in charge of his behavior, no one can be hypnotized if he does not want to be. In very rare cases, serious fears or misconceptions about the process can actually block hypnosis. In such cases, some pre-hypnosis exploration and education may be of great value in the process.
9. People may get stuck in a trance for a long time, maybe permanently. Remember, in hypnosis, the subject remains in control of himself and can exit the trance at any time. In fact, hypnotic trances are very similar to the trances we are in as we daydream, drive somewhere without thinking about the drive, or get lost in a book. Just as we can exit any of these common trances, we can exit an hypnotic trance. And we do not have to consciously act to exit a trance. Just as a night’s sleep will come to an end with a natural awakening at some point without an alarm, a person will naturally leave the pleasant hypnotic oasis of the Middle Mind.
10. Emergencies could occur during hypnosis, or my therapist departs leaving the trance in place. These misconceptions are somewhat related. The first deals with the concern of an emergency occurring during a client’s hypnotic state, a therapist having a heart attack or some other health crisis, for example, that leaves him unable to function. At the risk of sounding repetitious, I say again that people under hypnosis are always in control. Clients control their journeys to their Middle Minds. Every person is very aware of the conditions he may find himself in, just as if an emergency occurred on the drive along the expressway while his mind was lost in thought. Just as a person’s mind can shift gears instantly to protect him, it can also shift focus during hypnosis.
Let me share a somewhat embarrassing story that happened to me during a hypnotherapy session for my weight loss to illustrate the point. I had scheduled a 2:30 p.m. appointment. That morning I had two lengthy meetings. I ate lunch and washed it down with a bit more water than usual, too much water actually just preceding a session. I’m sure you can see where this is going. Upon my arrival, I weighed in. We had our typical discussion of the past week in which we evaluated how I was progressing in my dieting and behaviors, how I was handling any challenges that I faced, and what areas I could work on during hypnosis and in the week to come. Near the end of the hour, we began the induction. Of course, stage one is relaxation and a narrowing of focus. At this particular point, I had a sudden and immediate call of nature. I was already moving into a light trance, but I was cognizant enough of my bladder to pop out of the trance, somewhat to my therapist’s surprise, and explain my situation. He understood completely. I excused myself briefly and took care of business. After returning, I completed my session. This story does have a happy ending. We decided to recheck my weight after my “water loss” and, sure enough, I had lost another half a pound!
A somewhat related misconception is that the only person who can bring a person out of a trance is the person who puts him into a trance. As my illustration highlights, no one needs assistance to exit a trance, and certainly in the event of an emergency situation, others could enter the picture and awaken you, if necessary.
11. People can be hypnotized from distances or even from video devices like TV. This misconception impacted me. During my very skeptical period, I always avoided eye contact with the hypnotherapists I encountered regularly. Really! I just was not willing to take any chances. Why? I had seen the movie Now You See Me about a group of Robin Hood- type magicians who do “bad” for good. In that movie, Woody Harrelson plays a very talented hypnotist capable of entrancing a subject instantly, even from across a room. Of course, this Hollywood portrayal is completely false and impractical. True hypnosis takes patience, relaxation, and a hefty amount of trust from the client. Hypnosis from across a room or through a TV is impossible, no matter what stage or screen may portray.
12. Pocket watches and stares are tools of hypnosis. Pop culture has many believing that with an evil eye or snake eyes, a dominant doctor can use his gaze to bring a trance upon an unsuspecting victim. In many cases, the evil stare is used in conjunction with the pocket watch and an enjoinment to “Follow the watch.” These techniques both raise somewhat similar concerns. A dominant stare certainly can make anyone uncomfortable and can create conscious concerns, but there is no concern of being hypnotized. We might have some other psychological reaction to such behavior, but it will not be a hypnotic trance.
The swinging watch actually does have some historical basis in hypnosis. As a technique to encourage relaxation, eye open fixation on a spot can help. Although it is not often used today, it is a technique still in use. Patients should not expect to run into this method, but it should not be of any concern either. Once again, a patient in hypnotherapy is always in control and is well aware of all things going on.
13. Hypnosis can cure any ailment. The possibilities of behavioral help with hypnotherapy abound, but cures for any and all ailments, mental or physical, are not limitless. Physical ailments of a real material physical or chemical origin cannot be cured by hypnotherapy. For illustration, I will use extreme analogies. A decapitated arm cannot be restored or even reattached with hypnotherapy. (Hypnotherapy can help deal with the “ghost pain” from a lost limb, but that will be discussed in Chapter 19.) A drunken person cannot escape the hangover that follows a binge until the chemicals clear the body.
However, where there exists a behavioral activity that leads to physical ailment, the underlying drives or habits can be changed through hypnosis and therapy. An ethical hypnotherapist will require that medical specialists have determined that the physical cause of an issue has been addressed before pursuing hypnotherapy.
With particular reference to pain, hypnotherapy can provide quite credible relief in situations where traditional medical treatment has not been successful. In fact, an early use of hypnosis that is now gaining new interest is the use of this incredible tool in the place of chemical anesthesia. Dr. Crow, my instructor, popularized the term “hypnothesia,” and he has trained many physicians in the technique. Ken Thompson, my personal hypnotherapist, underwent cataract surgery and a colonoscopy using only hypnosis and forgoing chemical anesthesia.
We are learning with each passing day how individual attitudes, beliefs, and psychologies influence the development and course of any disease. Everyone generally understands that people with sunny dispositions seem to have healthier and happier lives. As researchers continue to understand the connection between the physical and mental, it is certainly likely that hypnotherapy will play an increasing role in the prevention and cure of sickness.
14. Hypnosis can cause dangerous after effects. Sessions with a reputable, well-trained, and ethical hypnotherapist make this concern nearly impossible. For explanation, let us turn to some computer analogies.
You may be familiar with the phrase, “Garbage In, Garbage Out” or GIGO. Like a computer, if we input only negative suggestions, then theoretically only the negative will result. So, if hypnosis is practiced carelessly or maliciously, as with some stage hypnosis acts seeking only entertainment and profit, then there may be some adverse after effects. It is conceivable that a hypnotists working with a self-destructive subject (one seeking and agreeing to enhance poor behavior) could achieve dangerous results. I have seen no evidence of such results, but theoretically it is possible.
Also, like a computer, hypnosis is best conducted in a systematic manner. When a computer powers down normally, it shuts down its programs in a specific order for a specific purpose. A sudden loss of power may require remedial steps in rebooting the computer. Most modern computers can handle these sudden interruptions, and people under hypnosis can, as well. But, to insure the well-being of the client, a hypnotherapist will want to systematically bring a client out of her trance. The therapist is achieving two things with a smooth transition. First, the therapist insures the well-being of her client. Second, the beneficial gains of the session can be preserved and reinforced as the trance ends.
15. I can hypnotize myself for the same gains. Self-hypnosis and hypnotherapy with an experienced practitioner are quite different. I am a big fan of self-hypnosis, but one cannot expect the same gains and depth of the changes that come from working with a professional. The best order of practice is to experience hypnosis with a professional. Depth of trance and breadth of application are both better with a hypnotherapist. The accelerated changes in behavior only happen together.
Also, the exposure to hypnosis that is performed correctly will create a standard and expectation for a client as she considers self-hypnosis. A therapist may very well encourage self-hypnosis and instruct her client as to the proper methods of the process. And maybe most importantly, she may show her client how to reinforce the behavioral gains that have been made under her care.
16. Hypnosis is the same as meditation. While these two practice may appear similar, there are numerous differences. First, and most evident, is the fact that hypnosis involves two people. The act is a cooperative experience planned in advance. Meditation generally involves one person.
Second, the trance of hypnosis is a much different state of mind than the one in meditation. The meditative state is really just mind-cleared relaxation with no goal or instruction. Either the mind is empty of thought or the mind is left to wander. The trance of hypnotherapy begins with relaxation, and as one enters the Middle Mind, most conscious thoughts will be dispensed with, but not all. The hypnotic trance leaves the client focused on a specific line of thought, but it is not simply a random thought. It is a line of thought that the therapist and the client have agreed upon and have planned for. The hypnotherapist works in concert with the client to help her relax and focus on the target.
Testing of the brain during meditation and during hypnosis highlights the differences. In meditation, the brain becomes less active. In hypnosis, part of the brain actually increases its activity. This activity is located in the brain’s frontal lobe, considered the seat of emotion in the brain. Such research into this connection helps to reinforce the idea that people cannot simply think themselves into new behavior.
Other than relaxation and the benefits derived from it, meditation is without objectives. Hypnotherapy, on the other hand, is very goal-directed and intentional.
17. Under hypnosis people can accurately recall things that happened earlier in their lives, even past lives. Our brains are incredible machines, and the capacity to retain data is vast. These amazing hard drives we have will accumulate and retain basically all of our life experiences. Recalling them, however, is often difficult. Hypnosis can be used to reach back into the data and fetch this old data. The relaxation allows entrance through the Middle Mind to the warehouse of the brain. Think of the focus achieved during hypnotherapy as the flashlight we might use to focus along the corridor of stored information. Hypnosis is an amazing tool to reach this data, and depending on the objectives of therapy, the recalling of memories may be of particular use.
However, these retrieved memories may not be fully accurate. Just as data may be corrupted, so, too, data in our memories may manifest falsehoods. This can happen several ways. The original recordings of these memories may be inaccurate themselves. Or something may have corrupted the memory while it was in storage. Or the memory may be altered in the process of retrieval. Besides our actual memory, the brain is storing our daydreams, fantasies, and other less-than-accurate ideas. Could these bleed into our actual memories?
Because of these potential issues with memories and hypnosis, courts of law do not allow memories reached during hypnosis to be used in court proceedings. Law enforcement, therefore, is reluctant to use hypnosis as what one might think is a great investigative tool for fear that all of a witness’s testimony will be excluded in court.
With regard to past lives memory, all I can say is that such claims are bogus. Someone’s claim to have traveled back to prior ages simply proves the limitations of past memory recall in hypnosis. Mind you, age regression and memory recall are effective tools when they are used reasonably in therapeutic settings where changed behavior is the objective, but such tools should be used only in light of their limitations.
18. People under hypnosis can be made to tell the truth (or lie). Let us assume for this discussion that we are talking about telling the truth or telling a lie under duress. We must return to our hypnosis fundamentals again to address this misconception. A person in a hypnotic trance is well aware of everything that is going on during the session. In fact, as to the sole idea or thought that the hypnosis is centered upon, the subject is actually hyper-focused. The subject is in control of his thinking and his will. The hypnotist at no point can override a person’s will. Therefore, a person cannot be made to speak the truth if he does not want to speak the truth, or to lie if he does not want to lie.
19. Hypnosis can produce paranormal powers. Let me state right up front that I believe there is no connection whatsoever between hypnosis and what some people call paranormal activity. However, it is necessary to address this misconception since there must be some historical reason that it remains a public discussion. Let us define some important terms here.
The term paranormal refers to events or other phenomena such as clairvoyance or telekinesis that simply works beyond our understanding, scientific or otherwise. Clairvoyance is not a lady’s name; it is the supposed ability to perceive things or events beyond our normal sensory contact. Some might use the terms Extrasensory Perception (ESP), sixth sense, or telepathy. Telekinesis is the power to move objects mentally or by means other than the physical.
In the infant stage of hypnosis development, particularly the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, during the era of snake oil salesmen and other traveling charlatans, the publicity of the research into hypnosis caught the attention of performers and entertainers. Soon, hucksters roamed the countryside with rather wild claims, usually of one person being able to control some unusually gifted person into doing some incredible paranormal act. These acts would involve something like moving an object with his mind, reading a book through a brick wall, or some other fantastic performance. The problem was that none of these claims could stand scientific testing or review. Like today’s TV faith healers, such acts may have made for good circus side shows, but there was simply no basis in fact to their claims. Any link to hypnotism is unfortunate because it now rests on hypnotherapists like me to debunk yet another misconception.
20. A hypnotist can make people commit immoral or illegal acts (or moral and legal acts). Here we are faced with basically the same problem that we addressed in #18 above: the hypnotist acting as a controller and the subject becoming a robot awaiting commands. The hypothesis is that one person who can act like a drone pilot in control of another person who is acting as the drone. That is simply not possible.
We now understand this about hypnosis: First, hypnosis is a cooperative act between two people. Second, a person must have a fairly high level of trust in a therapist to even initiate hypnosis. Third, the subject is relaxed, but he is by no means unconscious. Fourth, the subject is highly focused on what is taking place; he understands every word spoken by the hypnotist. Fifth, the subject always controls his actions at that time and in the future. Sixth, a person under hypnotism cannot be forced to do anything against his will. Therefore, one cannot make another commit a crime or an immoral act unwillingly. Unfortunately, the opposite is true, as well. A person, against his will, cannot be made to give up a life of crime. If this were the case, we could do a bit of hypnotherapy and clean out the prisons!
To say this all in another way: hypnosis is not a tool that can make a sinner out of saints, nor saints out of sinners.
21. Hypnosis in un-Christian, a tool of the Devil, and a play toy of the occult. This topic is so important to me personally that I have decided to devote the entire next section to its discussion.